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Operations Manual

Orange Air VA - Standard Operating Procedures

Orange Air Virtual Airline

Standard Operating Procedures

Introduction:

Virtual Airlines (VA's) generally aim to offer the flight simulator pilot a more structured experience as well as the chance to make new friends from around the world.

Orange Air (OA) is a global virtual carrier first "registered" in the Netherlands in 1996, using a fleet of Boeing, Airbus and some of the finer turbo-props.  We operate in the Microsoft Flight Simulator X (2006) virtual world (Of course you may use any other version of FS or Prepar3D).  There is perfect competition in the virtual world and we assume that the services we offer are homogeneous.  This means that we may operate weekly flights or multiple-daily flights, against the competition, and have no problems winning over passengers.  We can start-up on any route we wish and any passengers seeking to travel will be as likely to travel with us as any other carrier.

Please note that to comply with European law, you must be at least 14 years old or older to join Orange Air Virtual Airline.

Mission Statement:

Orange Air is a special type of virtual airline which seeks to provide not only fun, but extra enjoyment and satisfaction from our unique goals of realism, professionalism and having FUN!

Fewer rules, less regulation = More Fun!

These goals are accomplished with the experienced team here at OA.  We reward excellence with promotions, non-fleet aircraft and bonus payments.  Furthermore we use schedules and our timetables are often updated and expanded. There are currently over 1400 routes to choose from!  All our aircraft models are chosen because they offer the most realistic appearance and flight characteristics currently available.

Organisation:

Orange Air is a Non-Profit Organisation [NPO] run entirely by volunteers who are devoted to flight simulation.  We offer education to those who know little about the real aviation industry and an enjoyable sideline for pilots and airline managers who love aviation so much that they devote their free time to it.

Our management structure is based on real airline organisational structures yet seeks to be informal and adaptable.

Volunteer Officers at Orange Air:

CEO: David Morris

Cargo Officer: Dave Murphy

Fleet Officer: Vacant (Apply Here)

Operations Officer: Vacant (Apply Here)

Events Officer: Vacant (Apply Here)

Training Officer: Rob Wolzak

What makes Orange Air different?
For maximum realism and to encourage professionalism, all flights should be flown using real weather for the duration of the flight, from no more than 7 days ago and follow a route which has been planned in advance, using suitable NAV-Aids, airways or accepted direct routing and published STAR and SID procedures.  Approaches should be flown with the aid of published instrument approach plates, gate departure and arrival time should be recorded.  As should your fuel usage.

Current real world weather is available from http://weather.noaa.gov/pub/data/observations/metar/cycles/  Orange Air highly recommends the use of FSMeteo or ActiveSky to supply real world weather info to FS.

Pilots are encouraged to obtain real world en-route charts, STAR, SID and Approach/Terminal Plates either by purchase, second-hand purchase, or donation.  Because they are updated often, there are many real pilots and airlines who will supply out-of-date charts either free or at low cost, HERE.  Where no relevant charts are owned, pilots should use a suitable flight planning utility (e.g. VRoute or Route Finder etc) or seek help from the Operations Officer.  For UK operations go HERE.


Orange Air uses aircraft painted in our own livery.  Pilots are at their own discretion as to which type to use, preferably in Orange Air livery.  It is suggested that you visit our Fleet Hanger prior to seeking out your own model.  If you find a better model then let us know about the newer aircraft.  There have been many changes to aircraft design tools and performance editors.  New aircraft are being released often.  What was the best yesterday can quickly become second rate today.

Orange Air utilizes a hub-and-spoke route network, with most flights originating from our major hubs: Amsterdam-Schiphol, London-Heathrow, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Lisbon Intl, Moscow-Sheremetyevo, Montréal-Trudeau, Rotterdam, St. Maárten, Madrid-Barajas, Cairns and Sydney Intl.  OA also has Charter flights, a Round The World trip and many varied tours.

Note that Orange Air Operations use the ICAO four letter codes, not the three letter IATA codes used by passengers.

General Operating Rules for Orange Air.

1.1 Joining and Your Pilot ID Number:
To be part of Orange Air involves no money or extra fee other than what you already pay for using the Internet.  After you have submitted the registration form, and your application is accepted, you will be placed on the Pilots Roster and given a Pilot ID Number via e-mail.  You must use this Pilot ID when you communicate with any member of the airline staff. All we insist on is that you fly and log at least one flight every eight weeks of your membership. New members are expected to log their first flight within 14 days of joining.  After 60 days you may submit a Leave of Absence Request.  This will give you a further sixty days leave before you risk being deleted from the pilot roster!  If you are having any difficulties, then please contact Human Resources.  Remember that we are here to help, so please keep in touch.  The last thing we want to see, is you leaving Orange Air!

1.2 Training and Check rides:
Orange Air
encourages all of our pilots to join the Orange Air Training Academy.  Once a pilot joins they should contact the Training Officer to receive their Virtual Students Pilot License (VSPL).

1.3 Prior Experience / Transferred Flight Time:
Pilots with logged hours from Real World Aviation or another Virtual Airline and whose hours are accepted by management may also be transferred to OA.  The hours must be verified by providing the URL of the VA or by having the other VA's management team verify the hours with Orange Air management.  You are free to fly for other VA's not just OA.

1.4 E-Mail:
Pilots should feel free to e-mail any member of management with their questions or concerns.  You are encouraged to first try to work out the problem with the Operations Officer prior to e-mailing Head Office.  When e-mailing airline management, in the subject line of your message, include your Pilot ID number and then your subject.

1.5 Flight Restrictions at Orange Air:
In developing our Standard Operating Procedures [SOP], we have tried to reach equilibrium between true realism and fun.  The fact that pilots should only fly aircraft for which they are able, provides enough restrictions.

We require that, in order to submit your PIREP's, you use one of three ACARS clients.  FSPassengers, cACARS or kACARS.  They are available from your "Pilot Centre".  The submission of manual PIREP's is prohibited.  Manual PIREP's, submitted without good cause (such as a FS crashing or internet failure ect), will be rejected.

If you submit a manual PIREP, please state why in the "Comments" box, thank you.


AircraftRequired Rank
Aeronca Chief Trainee
Do 328-110 Trainee
MetroLiner Trainee
ATR 72-500 Trainee
MetroLiner ER Junior Officer
ERJ-145F Junior Officer
Avro RJ85 Junior Officer
A320-200 Deck Officer
B737-800 Deck Officer
B757-200 Second Officer
B787-900 Second Officer
A330-300 Second Officer
A350-900 First Officer
B767-400 First Officer
A340-600 Flying Officer
B777-300 Flying Officer
B747-400 Engineer
A380-800 Engineer
GSV Chief Pilot


1.6 Routes:
All flights should be flown using actual routes made with a flight planner, by using Radar Contact or the on-line services of OnlineSIM, IVAO or VATSIM.  Also see "Flight Plans" above.

1.7 Rank:
Orange Air
pilots are ranked according to their logged hours with the airline.
Orange Air rank structure is as follows:

Trainee Epilate Trainee 00   -   15 Hours
Junior Officer Epilate Junior Officer 15   -   30 Hours
Deck Officer Epilate Deck Officer 30   -   50 Hours
Second Officer Epilate Second Officer 50   -   75 Hours
First Officer Epilate First Officer 75   -  100 Hours
Flying Officer Epilate Flying Officer 100  -  150 Hours
Engineer Epilate Engineer 150  -  200 Hours
Flight Engineer Epilate Flight Engineer 200  -  250 Hours
Master Engineer Epilate Master Engineer 250  -  300 Hours
Fleet Engineer Epilate Fleet Engineer 300  -  350 Hours
Chief Pilot Epilate Chief Pilot 350  -  400 Hours
Senior Pilot Epilate Senior Pilot 400  -  450 Hours
Master Pilot Epilate Master Pilot 450  -  500 Hours
Junior Captain Epilate Junior Captain 500  -  600 Hours
Captain Epilate Captain 600  -  700 Hours
Fleet Captain Epilate Fleet Captain 700  -  800 Hours
Junior Commander Epilate Junior Commander 800  -  900 Hours
Commander Epilate Commander 900  - 1000 Hours
Fleet Commander Epilate Fleet Commander 1000 - 1250 Hours
Commodore Epilate Commodore 1250 - 1500 Hours
Fleet Commodore Epilate Fleet Commodore 1500 - 2000 Hours
Executive Commodore Epilate Executive Commodore 2000 - 3000 Hours
Special Executive Epilate Special Executive 3000 - 5000 Hours
VIP Epilate Very Important Pilot 5000 - 10000 Hours
Flying Legend Epilate Flying Legend 10000 - ++++ Hours
100 Hour Award Award for more than 100 hours
200 Hour Award Award for more than 200 hours
500 Hour Award Award for more than 500 hours
1000 Hour Award Award for more than 1000 hours
2000 Hour Award Award for more than 2000 hours
3000 Hour Award Award for more than 3000 hours
4000 Hour Award Award for more than 4000 hours
5000 Hour Award Award for more than 5000 hours
10000 Hour Award Award for more than 10000 hours

An Award will be given to pilots logging more than 100 hours. Further Awards will be made to pilots exceeding 200, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000 and 10000 hours.


2. General flight procedures aboard any Orange Air aircraft.

2.1 Crew Conduct:
THINK AHEAD!  You should have all information relevant to your flight, at hand !

No Orange Air pilot or officer should exhibit any behaviour which projects anything other than a highly professional image.  This is especially important when flying on-line.

2.2 Autopilot, Auto land and Accelerated Time:
When your aircraft is on autopilot, Flight Simulation Accelerated Time with Orange Air is authorised as long as the actual time is accounted for and this does not cause you to get disoriented with true flight times.  Accelerated time can only be used after the autopilot has been activated for stabilized flight, NEVER before, and is up to a speed of x4 max.  Unless you are using an FMS or GPS which is automatically capable of updating the autopilot, you should return to 1:1 time when approaching a waypoint (VOR, NDB or GPS fix).  We don't require our pilots to convert simulated hours to real hours!  Since pilots are simulating real time it's the simulated hours that count.  Explanation: If a pilot makes a long flight, lets say a 12 hour flight in flight simulator.  If the pilot used x4 acceleration in the simulation then the 12 simulated hours are valid for logged hours.  The pilot wouldn't have to divide his/her 12 simulated hours by the amount accelerated (12 / 4 = 3 real hours). Other VA's require that conversion and we think that sucks !!!
Accelerated Time is NOT allowed above x2 whilst flying on-line, and only whilst at cruise altitude.

2.3 Deviations and Alternate Airports:
The pilot in command [PIC] is expected to do everything within their ability to ensure the safe arrival of passengers and plane, on time, to the correct destination.  All deviations in departure time, (departure time begins as soon as you push-back from the gate at the departure point) or arrival time (arrival time is defined as the time you apply the parking brake at the arrival gate) must be explained in the "Comments" section of the flight report (PIREP).  Pilots are expected to attempt at least two instrument approaches at the arrival airport, unless visibility is below that required to complete an instrument approach or the pilot is restricted to VMC and the weather changes to IMC en-route, prior to proceeding to your alternate airport.

2.4 Flight Proficiency:
All pilots shall maintain proficiency in manual flight at all altitudes and all phases of flight.  The Training Officer is free to request an unannounced flight check at any time.  If a pilot is unable to complete an unannounced flight check then the Training Officer may revoke the pilot´s type rating or require the pilot to complete additional training.  Unannounced flight checks will be conducted fairly and may only be carried out twice per year, per pilot.

2.5 Flight Planning:
Pilots, acting as the pilot in command [PIC], are expected to work out their own flight plan using suitable navigation charts or flight planning programs.  Pilots that need assistance in flight planning should request help from the Operations Officer.

Real world weather, no older than seven days, should always be used.  In the virtual world you are "legal" to fly in any weather, but if you cannot land at your destination you should divert to your alternate.  Note: FAA regulations (FAR 91.169) require the primary airport to have 2,000 ft ceiling above ground and 3 miles visibility.  The alternate airport shall have 600 ft ceiling above ground level for precision ILS approaches (glide slope), 800 ft ceiling above ground level for non-precision ILS approaches (no glide slope) and 2 miles visibility.  Take-off minimums are 1 mile visibility or RVR of 5,000 ft or more. (FAR 91.155).

2.6 Cruising Policy:
As per FAA regulations (FAR 121.639(c)) requires a 45-minute fuel reserve plus one hour (at cruise altitude and speed) for fuel.  Your cruising altitude will, typically be between FL210 (21,000 ft) and FL410 (41,000 ft).  This is governed by FAR 91.179 IFR cruising altitudes/flight altitudes.

East bound - Heading 0 to 179 magnetic: FL 190, 210, 230, 250, 270, 290, 310, 330, 350, 370, 390, 410, 430, 450, 470, 490, 510

West bound - Heading 180 to 359 magnetic: FL 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 440, 460, 480, 500

Aircraft are not authorized to cruise at or below 10,000´ unless (a) The aircraft must do so to comply with A.T.C directives, (b) The aircraft must do so due to an emergency situation or (c) The aircraft is a prop/turbo-prop and the cruising time is less than 60 minutes.

2.7 Maximum Operating Speeds:
FAA regulations (FAR 91.117) require that, unless authorized by the C.A.A/F.F.A or ATC, no pilot may operate an aircraft below 10,000 feet MSL at an indicated airspeed of more than 250 Knots. (The B747 and Concorde are often exempt from this rule [on take off]).  No pilot may operate any Orange Air aircraft in excess of the stated maximum operating airspeed for that aircraft.

No pilot will operate an aircraft in excess of 200 knots within Class B airspace (FAR 91.117).

No pilot will operate an aircraft in excess of 180 knots within 4 nm of the primary airport in Class C or D airspace when below 2,500 ft AGL (FAR 91.117).

Holding (AIM 5-3-7 j 2).

No Pilot will operate an aircraft in excess of 220 knots while operating at an altitude between MHA to 6,000 ft MSL.

No pilot will operate an aircraft in excess of 250 knots while operating at an altitude between 6,001 ft MSL to 10,000 ft MSL.

No pilot will operate an aircraft in excess of 320 knots whilst climbing to cruise altitude above 10,001 ft MSL.

NOTAM: The B747 and Concorde are often exempt from the above speed restrictions and may climb (with ATC permission) at 280 KIAS upon take off.


3.0 On-Line Flying Procedures:

After logging on to an on-line network, pilots should aim to file a correct flight plan within 10 minutes and depart within 30 minutes.  After arrival you must not remain logged on for more than 20 minutes after shutting down your engines.

If, during your flight, you need to leave the cockpit, for any reason, you should set your Team Speak to "Away".  If you are flying in an active ATC airspace you must inform your controller of your absence.  This absence will not be for longer than 20 minutes.  Longer periods of absence from the cockpit are permitted, on long haul oceanic flights.  Such prolonged absence is a privilege, so do not abuse this and keep it to a minimum.

Pilots must always connect to Team Speak. If there is active ATC in your location you must connect to their channel and declare your intentions.  If no ATC is available you should connect either to UNICOM or the Orange Air company channel.  All verbal communications are conducted in English.  Text only communications are not permitted.

IFR flight plans should contain the waypoint, airway, waypoint, airway.  Do not include the SID, STAR, destination or departure details.  Unless directed otherwise by active ATC, you must set your squawk code to 2000 for IFR flights and 7000 for VFR flights.  You must also state your intended departure time and an alternate airport.

VFR flight plans should give the route as "Own Navigation".  Your squawk code must be set to 7000.

4.0 Conversions:

Time to Distance (No wind)

Ground Speed (Knots)
Distance (Nautical Miles)
25
50
75
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
140
0:11
0:21
0:32
0:43
1:04
1:26
1:14
2:09
2:30
2:51
3:13
3:34
4:17
180
0:08
0:17
0:25
0:33
0:50
1:07
1:23
1:40
1:57
2:13
2:30
2:47
3:20
240
0:06
0:13
0:19
0:25
0:38
0:50
1:03
1:15
1:28
1:40
1:53
2:05
2:30
300
0:05
0:10
0:15
0:20
0:30
0:40
0:50
1:00
1:10
1:20
1:30
1:40
2:00
360
0:04
0:08
0:13
0:17
0:25
0:33
0:42
0:50
0:58
1:07
1:15
1:23
1:40
420
0:04
0:07
0:11
0:14
0:21
0:29
0:36
0:43
0:50
0:57
1:04
1:11
1:26
500
0:03
0:06
0:09
0:12
0:18
0:24
0:30
0:36
0:42
0:48
0:54
1:00
1:12
600
0:03
0:05
0:08
0:10
0:15
0:20
0:25
0:30
0:35
0:40
0:45
0:50
1:00
800
0:02
0:04
0:06
0:08
0:11
0:15
0:19
0:23
0:26
0:30
0:34
0:38
0:45
1000
0:02
0:03
0:05
0:06
0:09
0:12
0:15
0:18
0:21
0:24
0:27
0:30
0:36

Indicated Airspeed/True Airspeed
Conversion Factor (Knots)

Altitude (In feet) Conversion Factor
0 1.00
5,000 1.08
10,000 1.17
15,000 1.26
20,000 1.37
25,000 1.50
30,000 1.64
35,000 1.79
40,000 2.02
Multiply indicated airspeed by conversion  factor to determine true airspeed


Mach Number/Airspeed Conversion (Knots)

Altitude Standard Temp Mach Number Mach Number Mach Number Mach Number Mach Number Mach Number Mach Number Mach Number
    0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00
0 59F/15C 430 463 497 530 563 596 629 662
10,000 23F/-5C 415 447 479 511 543 575 607 639
20,000 -12F/-25C 400 431 461 492 523 554 584 615
30,000 -48F/-44C 384 413 443 472 502 531 561 590
40,000 -70F/-56C 373 402 431 459 488 517 545 574


ILS Category Statutory Requirements
Signal Strength CAT I CAT II CAT III A CAT III B CAT III C
Minimum Visibility (In feet) 2,625 1,312 656 164 0
Decision Height (In feet) 200 100 0 0 0


5.0 Dates and Times:
Timetable departure times are in local time unless otherwise stated.  You should be aware of how this differs from Zulu time.
Orange Air uses the 24 hour clock.  Four digits dates should be in the DD/MM/YY format to avoid any confusion.  SOP Version: 9.1


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